Territory in central and northwest North America, ruled since 1788 by the United States of America
See also:
  • FreedomPedia
  • The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a country in the Americas. It is composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and various possessions. The 48 contiguous states and federal district are in central North America between Canada and Mexico, with the state of Alaska in the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii comprising an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. At 9.8 million km² and with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's third-largest country by total area (and fourth-largest by land area) and the third-most populous. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Urbanisation climbed to over 80% in 2010 and leads to growing megaregions. The country's capital is Washington, D.C. and its largest city is New York City; other major metropolitan areas include Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Boston, Philadelphia, Houston, Atlanta and Miami. The geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse.

    • 9/11 - September 11, 2001 Attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
    • Alabama - Motto: Audemus Jura Nostra Defendere (We Dare Defend Our Rights)
    • Alaska - The Last Frontier
    • Arizona - The Grand Canyon State
    • Arkansas - Motto: Regnat Populus (The People Rule)
    • California - The Golden State
    • Carolina, North - The Tarheel State - ratified Constitution 21 Nov 1789
    • Carolina, South - The Palmetto State - ratified Constitution 23 May 1788
    • Colonies, Thirteen - The 13 original colonies whose representatives signed the U.S. Declaration of Independence
    • Colorado - The Centennial State
    • Connecticut - The Constitution State - ratified Constitution 9 Jan 1788
    • Dakota, North - The Peace Garden State
    • Dakota, South - The Mount Rushmore State
    • Delaware - Motto: Liberty and Independence - ratified Constitution 7 Dec 1787
    • Florida - The Sunshine State
    • Georgia - The Peach State - ratified Constitution 2 Jan 1788
    • Hawaii - Islands in the central Pacific Ocean, ruled since 1959 by State of Hawaii - Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi
    • Idaho - The Gem State
    • Illinois - The Prairie State
    • Indiana - The Hoosier State
    • Iowa - Motto: Our Liberties We Prize and Our Rights We Will Maintain
    • Kansas - The Sunflower State
    • Kentucky - The Bluegrass State
    • Louisiana - The Pelican State
    • Maine - The Pine Tree State
    • Maryland - The Free State - ratified Constitution 28 Apr 1788
    • Massachusetts - The Bay State - ratified Constitution 6 Feb 1788
    • Michigan - The Wolverine State
    • Minnesota - The North Star State
    • Mississippi - The Magnolia State
    • Missouri - The Show Me State
    • Montana - Big Sky Country
    • Nebraska - The Cornhusker State
    • Nevada - The Battle Born State
    • New Hampshire - Motto: Live Free or Die - ratified Constitution 21 Jun 1788
    • New Jersey - Motto: Liberty and Prosperity - ratified Constitution 18 Dec 1787
    • New Mexico - Land of Enchantment
    • New York - The Empire State - ratified Constitution 26 Jul 1788
    • Ohio - The Buckeye State
    • Oklahoma - The Sooner State
    • Oregon - The Beaver State
    • Pennsylvania - The Keystone State - ratified Constitution 12 Dec 1787
    • Rhode Island - The Ocean State - ratified Constitution 29 May 1790
    • Tennessee - The Volunteer State
    • Texas - The Lone Star State
    • U.S. Presidents - Heads of the Executive branch of the United States government
    • Utah - The Beehive State
    • Vermont - The Green Mountain State
    • Virginia - The Old Dominion - ratified Constitution 23 Jun 1788
    • Virginia, West - Motto: Montani Semper Liberi (Mountaineers Are Always Free)
    • Washington - The Evergreen State
    • Washington, D.C. - The Nation's Capital
    • Wisconsin - The Badger State
    • Wyoming - The Equality State

    Birthplace of

    Michael Cloud, Michael Emerling, on 1 Jan 1951

    Conferences and Conventions

    Boston Tea Party, Organizational Convention, in the Internet, on 19 Aug 2006


    Rush, 30th Anniversary Tour, in several cities, from 26 May to 15 Aug 2004

    Measures of Freedom

    Human Freedom Index, The Human Freedom Index 2016: A Global Measurement of Personal, Civil, and Economic Freedom
    2014: 8.27, Rank: 23, Personal Freedom: 8.79, Economic Freedom: 7.75, Democracy Index: 8.01
    Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World: 2016 Annual Report
    2014: 7.75, Rank: 16
    United States | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016: Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democracies: Global Freedom under Pressure
    2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 90, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
    "As the 2016 election campaign got under way, relations between the Democratic Party administration of President Barack Obama and Congress—controlled by the Republican Party—remained tense throughout 2015. The two sides managed to enact a crucial spending bill in December, but only after John Boehner stepped down as speaker of the House of Representatives in October, under pressure from hard-line conservatives in the Republican rank and file."


    Americans Have Lost Their Country, by Paul Craig Roberts, 1 Mar 2007
    Discusses the neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration and the rationale for their actions furthering wars in the Middle East
    "The Bush-Cheney regime is America's first neoconservative regime. In a few short years, the regime has destroyed the Bill of Rights, the separation of powers, the Geneva Conventions, and the remains of America's moral reputation along with the infrastructures of two Muslim countries and countless thousands of Islamic civilians. ... Why is the US spending one trillion dollars on wars, the reasons for which are patently false. What is going on?"
    Americans Should Be "Anti-American", by Sheldon Richman, 21 Jun 2006
    Comments on Robert Kagan's statement that the Iraq War "made anti-Americanism respectable again"
    "What exactly do anti-Americanists dislike? There are several possible candidates: the people, the culture, the tradition of freedom, the commercial spirit, the U.S. government's foreign policies. That leaves only one real object of foreign hostility, U.S. foreign policy. And let's face it, what's not to dislike? Since the end of World War II, a succession of American presidents and their diplomatic and military minions have treated much of the world like slow, pitiable stepchildren badly in need of their guidance."
    Related Topic: Imperialism
    Gravity works, by Victor Milán, Rational Review, 3 Feb 2005
    Discusses the state of democracy in the United States in the wake of the January 2005 Iraqi parliamentary election
    "Democracy is a fraud in the US -- a control mechanism, a puppet-show to make the cattle think they have some role in governing themselves. ... Imagine how you'd feel, here in the former United States of the former America, if you got to enjoy a Chinese People's Liberation Army goon pointing a Type 56 at your head during a routine traffic stop. ... How can the US export freedom to Iraq or anyplace? We don't have any. The Constitution is a dead letter."
    Related Topic: Iraq
    Our Elective Monarchy, by Sheldon Richman, 16 Jun 2004
    Comments on the seemingly royal funeral for Ronald Reagan and the similar treatment given to other U.S. Presidents, contrasting them to British Prime Ministers
    "Great Britain's government is a parliamentary system under a monarchy. Thus the head of state and the head of government are different people. ... The Parliament's vigorous questioning of the prime minister is the most public manifestation of this feature of the British government. ... notwithstanding the jabber about 'of the people, by the people, for the people,' the State is in charge. ... What we [Americans] have is an elective monarch who, if we are to believe the current wearer of the crown, rules by divine right."
    States, United States: America's James Bond Complex, by Sheldon Richman, 4 Feb 2015
    Argues that the doctrine of American exceptionalism means U.S. officials appear to have a de facto licence to kill
    "U.S. rulers have waged aggressive genocidal wars (against the Indians and Vietnamese, for example), have brutally put down colonial rebellions (against the Filipinos, for example), facilitated genocidal policies carried out by client dictators (in Indonesia, for example), underwritten repressive dictatorships and brutal occupations (in Egypt and Palestine, for example), and instigated in antidemocratic coups (in Iran and Chile, for example). When has an American official been placed in the dock to answer for these crimes?"
    The Secret State, by Carl Oglesby, 19 Dec 1991
    Details various events from the establishment of the Gehlen Org after World War II to the 1991 death of Danny Casolaro that Oglesby says led to the creation of "a national-security oligarchy, a secret and invisible state within the public state"
    "This is the base upon which the U.S. intelligence system was founded. The National Security Act of 1947 reorganized the military and created the CIA, but the Gehlen Org was the base from which U.S. intelligence developed throughout the decades of the Cold War. ... A secret state has set itself up within the darkest corners of the American government. It is what Nixon adviser John Dean called a cancer on the presidency, but it has metastasized well beyond the White House."
    The U.S. Base on Diego Garcia: An Overlooked Atrocity, by Sheldon Richman, 4 Jun 2013
    Describes the forced evacuation of Diego Garcia's native inhabitants by Great Britain during 1968-1973, so that the United States could set up a Navy base, as well as current efforts to redress those actions
    "Vine has written a book ... about the savage treatment of the people of Diego Garcia, part of the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean. Americans may know Diego Garcia as a U.S. military base. It 'helped launch the Afghan and Iraq wars and was part of the CIA's secret "rendition" program for captured terrorist suspects,' ... 'A day after the European court ruling, the Obama administration rejected the demands of an online petition signed by some 30,000 asking the White House to "redress wrongs against the Chagossians."' The British were adequately looking after the matter, the administration said."
    Related Topics: Government, United Kingdom
    We Must Not Be the World’s Policeman, by Sheldon Richman, 4 Sep 2013
    Considers whether United States actions against Syria are justified from moral and constitutional perspectives
    "No one appointed the United States the world's policeman. The government's founding document, the Constitution, does not and could not do so. ... Assad poses no danger to Americans. Bombing would make him more — not less — of a threat. ... To be sure, Assad is a criminal. But the U.S. government's record on the world's stage hardly qualifies it for any merit badges."
    What's Become of Americans?, by Paul Craig Roberts, 22 Mar 2006
    Ponders the lack of reaction by Americans to events related to the Iraq War, such as the missing WMDs, Abu Ghraib, mass surveillance, "free speech" zones, the death toll and the Haditha massacre
    "And now, it's been discovered the executive branch has been conducting massive, illegal, domestic surveillance on its own citizens. You and me. And I at least consoled myself that finally, finally the American people will have had enough. Evidently, we haven't. In fact, if the people of this country have spoken, the message is we're okay with it all. Torture, warrantless search and seizure, illegal wiretappings, prison without a fair trial or any trial, war on false pretenses. We, as a citizenry, are apparently not offended."
    Why They Hate Us, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Feb 2008
    Examines the myth that the United States is hated because Americans "are free and represent democracy"
    "American foreign policy has treated foreign populations like garbage, beginning with the brutal repression of the Filipino uprising against American colonial rule from 1899 to 1902. ... Since that time American presidents have intervened, directly or by proxy, in countless places, including Cuba, Haiti, Colombia (Panama), Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, the Soviet Union, Iran, Iraq, Guatemala, Lebanon, the Dominican Republic, Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan."
    Related Topics: Imperialism, Terrorism
    Give Me Liberty, by Rose Wilder Lane, 1936
    Originally published as an article titled "Credo" in the Saturday Evening Post; describes her experiences in and history of Soviet Russia and Europe, contrasting them with the history of the United States, emphasizing the individualist themes
    "The test of the worth of personal freedom, then, can only be its practical results in a country whose institutions and ways of life and of thought have grown from individualism. The only such country is the United States of America. Here, on a new continent, peoples with no common tradition founded this republic on the rights of the individual. This country was the only country in the western world whose territory was largely settled and whose culture is dominated by those northwestern Europeans from whom the idea of individual liberty came into the world's history as a political principle."
    How Much More Harm Can Bush Do?, by Paul Craig Roberts, 7 Mar 2006
    Discusses the casualties resulting from the 2003 Iraq invasion, the changed world opinion of the United States and the lobbies that benefit from the continuation of hostilities
    "Despite the unrelenting U.S. propaganda against Iran and North Korea, a poll of 28,000 people in 27 countries for the BBC World Service (March 6) found that Israel, Iran, and the U.S. in that order are regarded as the most negative influences on the world. Even North Korea is regarded as a less negative influence than America. Japan, Canada, the EU, France, China, and India are all regarded as more positive influences on the world than the United States."
    Improve the CIA? Better to abolish it, by Chalmers Johnson, San Francisco Chronicle, 22 Feb 2004
    Lists countries where the CIA conducted subversive operations and recommends abolishing the agency.
    "Adm. Stansfield Turner, former director of central intelligence from 1977 to 1981, recommended in a New York Times op-ed earlier this month that U. S. intelligence operations could be improved by adding another layer of bureaucracy ... I have a better idea: Why don't we abolish the CIA and make public, as the Constitution requires, the billions spent by the intelligence agencies under the control of the Department of Defense so that Congress might have a fighting chance in doing oversight?"
    Iraq Exit Strategy: America's Path Forward [PDF], by Libertarian Party, 29 Jun 2005
    Proposal by the Libertarian National Committee for the U.S. to remove its troops from Iraq and a direct-aid program to allow Iraq to reconstruct its infrastructure (note: the occupation lasted another six years)
    "As the United States removes troops from Iraq, 30,000 will be relocated to other Middle Eastern countries. ... Decisions regarding troop reallocation will be based on the locations of existing U.S. military bases in the Middle East. The most likely candidates would be Turkey, Bahrain, Egypt and Oman. ... All of the previously mentioned countries have U.S. military bases that possess additional acres to house more troops."
    Liberalism, by Friedrich A. Hayek, New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History, 1978
    Chapter 9; originally written in 1973 for the Enciclopedia del Novicento; covers both the history of both strands of liberalism as well as a systematic description of the "classical" or "evolutionary" type
    "The reason for the absence of a similar [liberal] movement in the USA is mainly that the chief aspirations of European liberalism were largely embodied in the institutions of the United States since their foundation, and partly that the development of political parties there was unfavourable to the growth of parties based on ideologies."
    Terrorism Comes with Empire, by Jacob G. Hornberger, 8 Jul 2005
    Reflects on the 7 July 2005 London bombings (and 1993 and 2001 attacks in New York and the Pentagon) and why England and the U.S. were the targets rather than Switzerland
    "Americans must make a choice — a choice between freedom and peace, on the one hand, and the continuation of the U.S. military empire, on the other hand. They cannot have freedom and peace and the empire. ... If people choose to continue the empire — and the diplomatic and military glory that comes with being the world's sole remaining empire — then they must resign themselves to the fact that their lives and freedom will be under perpetual assault by both terrorists and government officials."
    The Colonial Venture of Ireland, Part 2, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Jun 2004
    Historical account of Ireland from 1840 to the early years of the twentieth century, including the Young Irelanders, the famines, the Irish in North America, Captain Boycott, the demand for home rule, the Gaelic League and the emergence of Sinn Fein
    "Immigrants to North America carried their hatred of Britain with them. ... Almost every Irish-American community had a Repeal Club that sent dollars to Dublin and pressured American politicians to support a free Ireland. ... During the American Civil War, at least 150,000 Union and 40,000 Confederate soldiers had been born in Ireland. Second- and third-generation Irish-Americans greatly swelled those numbers."
    The Criminality of the State, by Albert Jay Nock, The American Mercury, 1939
    Cautions Americans that rather than being worried or surprised by the doings of Nazi Germany, Soviet Russia, the Munich agreement and other foreign states, they should devote their energies to reining the growth of the United States government
    "Also, in order to keep down the great American sin of self-righteousness, every public presentation ought to draw the deadly parallel with the record of the American State. The German State is persecuting a minority, just as the American State did after 1776; the Italian State breaks into Ethiopia, just as the American State broke into Mexico; the Japanese State kills off the Manchurian tribes in wholesale lots, just as the American State did the Indian tribes; ... and so on."
    The Drug War as a Socialist Enterprise, by Milton Friedman, 16 Nov 1991
    From keynote address at Fifth International Conference on Drug Policy Reform; examines why, 20 years after Friedman's admonition against Nixon's drug war, the government continues its attempts at enforcement, in spite of the observable, predicted results
    "But so far as the United States is concerned, people from all over the world seek to immigrate here. They aren't coming here to be made miserable. They aren't coming here to be exploited. And you can't say that they're all fools; they know what they're getting into. So, I reject the idea that this is a country in which a few stand on the backs of the multitudes, which is a standard argument of the Marxists."
    The Land of the Free, by Henry Louis Mencken, 12 Jan 1925
    Relates the story of Italian-American newspaper owner Carlo Tresca and his travails for daring to criticise the Italian Fascists
    "What becomes of the old notion that the United States is a free country, that it is the refuge for the oppressed of other lands, that here they may voice their grievances and call for help? There was a time when such rebels against tyranny came here as a matter of course, and were received with open arms. ... Also, what becomes of the old notion that a peaceable man, in this great Republic, should be unmolested- that the Polizei should not pursue and harass him day and night, and try by dodge after dodge to get him into their clutches?"
    Related Topic: Freedom of the Press
    The War the Government Cannot Win, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., 1 May 2007
    Discusses how government cannnot win the war on terror because economic law is more powerful than the state
    "... if history teaches us anything it is that no country wants to be ruled by a foreign power, whether that foreign occupation takes the form of colonialism or outright military dictatorship. People would rather run a country badly than have it run well from the outside. No one should understand this better than the American people, whose country was born in a revolt against foreign rule."
    U.S. Hypocrisy in Cuba, by Jacob G. Hornberger, 26 May 2006
    Comments on a billboard stating "In a free country you don’t need permission to leave the country. Is Cuba a free country?", posted by the U.S. Special Interest Section in Havana
    "Most Americans continue to view their federal government as a beloved parent, one who never lies to them; who takes care of them and gives them 'freedom' in the form of welfare, health care, Social Security, education, grants, subsidies, and protection from drug dealers, immigrants, terrorists, and oil companies; and who is devoted to spreading freedom and democracy around the world. Most of the rest of the world sees the reality ..."
    Related Topics: Cuba, Socialism
    We Were Warned about the Rise of Empire, by Sheldon Richman, 13 Jun 2014
    Revisits Garet Garrett's 1952 essay "The Rise of Empire"
    "Garrett's phrase 'an emotional complex of vaunting and fear' couldn't better apply to today's America. Government officials beat their chests in describing how powerful, exceptional, and indispensable America is for the world. No one, they say, can challenge America's dominance and leadership in the world. Yet at the same time they advise Americans to fear Islamic terrorism, China, Russia, Latin American drug lords, and sundry other threats."


    A History of the American People
        by Paul Johnson, 1997
    Contents: Colonial America, 1580-1750 - Revolutionary America, 1750-1815 - Democratic, 1815-1850 - Civil War, 1850-1870 - Industrial, 1870-1912 - Melting-Pot, 1912-1929 - Superpower America, 1929-1960 - Problem-Solving, Problem-Creating America, 1960-1997
    America: A Minority Viewpoint
        by Walter E. Williams, 1983
    Contents: Race - Unions - Government Failure - Freedom and Coercion - Crime and the Law - Inflation, Taxes, and Government Spending
    Conceived in Liberty
        by Murray N. Rothbard, 1975
    Volume I: A New Land, A New People: The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century - II: "Salutary Neglect": The American Colonies in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century - III: Advance to Revolution, 1760-1775 - IV: The Revolutionary War, 1775-1784
    Reinventing America: The Common Sense Domestic Agenda for the 90's
        by Michael Foudy, 1992
    Partial contents: Money Makes the World Go Round! - The Value of Money - What Went Wrong? - The Worst Case - Why Bother? - Politics: A Complex of Social Relations - Power is the Reality - Prospects for America - Where Do We Go From Here?
    The Decline of the American Republic and How to Rebuild It
        by John T. Flynn, 1955
    Partial contents: The Tragic Retreat - Government and Freedom - Republics in History - The American Republic - The Great Depression - A New Name for Socialism - The Dark Alliance - The Assault on the Constitution - From Depression to War Room
    A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960
        by Milton Friedman, 1963
    Partial contents: The Greenback Period - Silver Politics and the Secular Decline in Prices, 1879-97 - Gold Inflation and Banking Reform, 1897-1914 - Early Years of the Federal Reserve System, 1914-21 - The High Tide of the Reserve System, 1921-29
    Related Topics: Money, Federal Reserve System


    Is America # One?, by John Stossel, 19 Sep 1999
    ABC News special; starts by comparing the U.S., India and Hong Kong and then posits reasons for prosperity in the U.S.

    The Empire Strikes Out: Debt, inflation and the end of the state, by Stefan Molyneux, 23 Sep 2008
    Analyses the U.S. economic crisis in the fall of 2008

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