The supreme law of the United States of America
  • Bill of Rights, United States - First 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
  • Commerce Clause - Clause of article I, section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that gives Congress power "to regulate commerce"
  • Powers, Enumerated - Constitutional doctrine of limiting the Federal Government to explicitly granted powers

Reference

Constitution of the United States, 17 Sep 1787
U.S. National Archives, includes transcript and downloadable high-resolution image

Articles

A Very Inconvenient Document, by Vin Suprynowicz, 18 Sep 2006
"Delineating and thereby limiting the powers of the central government is, in fact, the main function of the founding document. ... It would be wonderful to see the U.S. Constitution taught in the public schools. I will believe such a course of education is underway when someone can show me a list of study questions being presented to today's students, including ..."
Could Katrina vanden Heuvel Please Just Shut Up?, by Kevin Carson, 22 May 2013
Commentary on The Nation's publisher tweet on "government for common good"
"It's probably no coincidence that the nonsensical phrase 'general Welfare' appears in the US Constitution's Preamble right after the equally nonsensical 'common Defence.' The idea that American military policy serves some common 'national interest,' as opposed to the corporate entities in whose interests wars are actually fought, is pure buncombe. And so is the idea that the American state's economic policies are aimed at some sort of general welfare."
Does John Ashcroft Understand the Constitution?, by Jacob G. Hornberger, 22 Oct 2004
"By according suspected terrorists the rights of habeas corpus, right to counsel, and due process of law, the [Supreme] Court ... was ... enforcing centuries-old procedural guarantees in the administration of justice that our ancestors had the wisdom and foresight to enumerate in the Constitution."
History Lesson Lost, by Sheldon Richman, 6 Oct 2006
Comments on Merrill Jensen's 1940 book about the American Revolution, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitutional Convention
"The Articles of Confederation, Jensen writes, were the radicals' triumph over the conservatives in the Continental Congress ... But the conservatives did not give up their nationalist aspirations. After years of denigrating the confederation and attempting to amend the Articles, they finally got their way in 1787 and used the Constitutional Convention to scrap them in favor of a strong central government."
None Dare Call It Hypothetical, by Joseph Sobran, The Reactionary Utopian, 20 Dec 2005
"In a word, the Constitution is anti-monarchical. ... it provides for things like elections ... and impeachments, which, though essential protections, are all too rare. Elections without the real threat of impeachment invite the abuse of power. Monarchism ... is a perennial temptation, even under the forms of a republic ..."
No U-Turns, by Jack Dennon, 29 May 2006
Critiques the U.S. Constitution and the government it allowed to be set up, with quotes from Albert Jay Nock and Lysander Spooner
"The fundamental nature of America's government has indeed remained unaltered in its ability to offer sagacious actors access to the 'political means' for harnessing government coercion in the service of private economic advantage. Today the Constitution is worse than a dead letter, for it provides the facade of legitimacy behind which government actors are enabled to do as they please."
Shall Liberty or Empire be Sought?, by Patrick Henry, 5 Jun 1788
Speech to the Virginia Ratifying Convention; criticises several clauses of the proposed Constitution and warns about the possibility of a U.S. President becoming even worse than a king
"THIS, sir, is the language of democracy--that a majority of the community have a right to alter government when found to be oppressive. But how different is the genius of your new Constitution from this! How different from the sentiments of freemen that a contemptible minority can prevent the good of the majority! ... This Constitution is said to have beautiful features; but when I come to examine these features, sir, they appear to me horribly frightful."
Take the Constitution Seriously in the Second Term, by Sheldon Richman, 8 Nov 2004
Suggests a plan of action for George W. Bush upon election for a second term as U.S. President
"According to the Constitution the presidency is a modest office. The powers are rather few. ... he executes the laws passed by Congress, which is also bound by a small number of powers. The president can spend money only as appropriated by Congress. ... He is not our commander in chief, as people seem to believe , and second, being commander does not include the power to declare war. That power was reserved, exclusively, to the Congress."
The Antifederalists Were Right, by Gary M. Galles, Mises Daily, 27 Sep 2006
"The Antifederalists warned us that the cost Americans would bear in both liberty and resources for the government that would evolve under the Constitution would rise sharply. That is why their objections led to the Bill of Rights, to limit that tendency (though with far too little success that has survived to the present)."
The Constitutional Crisis No One Seems To Understand, by Harvey Silverglate, The Phoenix, 2 Jun 2006
"What the White House didn't count on was that a red-hot Congress would invoke an obscure constitutional provision called the 'speech or debate clause,' found in Article 1, Section 6, that protects the legislature from intrusion by other branches of government under certain circumstances. ... The provision is nothing less than a bulwark of the separation-of-powers doctrine ..."
The Failed Attempt to Leash the Dogs of War, by Bart Frazier, Future of Freedom, Dec 2006
Discusses provisions of the Constitution that were meant to prevent the United States from having a large, permanent military and becoming involved in warfare at the will of a single person
"The separation-of-powers doctrine is a running theme of the Constitution. The power to enact laws is given to Congress, the power to enforce them is given to the president, and the power to interpret them is given to the judiciary. ... And so it was that the Constitution had provisions against a standing army. It did not prevent a standing army outright, for in times of peril one would be necessary. But the funds for a standing army had to be renewed every two years."
The Ignorant Can't Be Free, by C. T. Rossi, 28 Mar 2007
"A handful of modern thinkers, such as Murray Rothbard, have sought to address how the study of freedom is essential to understanding what our Constitution is and is not. ... Certainly the essential purpose of any constitution is to create a government. But the American constitution endeavors to create a specific government, a form which was believed to help maximize the liberty of those who live under it – a federal government."
The Lawless State, by Joseph Sobran, The Reactionary Utopian, 11 Jul 2006
"The big decisions, under the U.S. Constitution, were supposed to be made by the Congress, and 'faithfully executed' by the president. Thus Congress declared war after Pearl Harbor and Franklin D. Roosevelt then (and only then) assumed the powers of commander in chief of the armed forces."
The Progressive Era, Part 1: The Myth and the Reality, by William L. Anderson, Future of Freedom, Feb 2006
"... their greatest 'triumph' being passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, which ushered in the era of Prohibition. ... From the creation of the Federal Reserve System to the Sixteenth Amendment ..., Progressives were able to do away with the impediments created by the U.S. Constitution, which according to them stood in the way of progress."
U.S. Supreme Court, MARBURY v. MADISON, 5 U.S. 137 (1803), by John Marshall, Feb 1803
"The Constitution is either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, and, like other acts, is alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it. ... the theory of every such government must be, that an act of the legislature, repugnant to the constitution, is void."
Was the Constitution Really Meant to Constrain the Government?, by Sheldon Richman, 8 Aug 2008
Explains how attempting to revert to the "original meaning" of the Constitution or appealing to the writings of the framers will not lead to a free society
"A shortcut favored by most advocates of limited government is 'restoration' of the Constitution. 'If only we could get back to the Constitution as it was written,' people say. It's a sincere wish, but as a path to a free society, it's riddled with potholes."
Where Is the Constitution?, by Sheldon Richman, 28 Jul 2006
Discusses the varying legal interpretations of the U.S. Constitution and what is meant by "obeying rules"
"I mean the real constitution — the set of attitudes that reflect what Americans people will accept as legitimate actions by the people in government. ... words faithfully recited, or inscribed on parchment and hung in the National Archives, will never be enough to assure liberty. ... If liberty and free markets are to be established, government power must be rolled back. And if government power is to be rolled back, the real constitution — people's hearts and minds — must be pro-liberty."
A Collapsing Presidency, by Paul Craig Roberts, 20 Mar 2006
"Neocons do not believe in the US Constitution, civil liberties, the separation of powers ... According to published reports, President Bush described the Constitution as 'a scrap of paper.' Bush's attorney general, vice president, and secretary of defense ..., in violation of their oath of office, have openly declared that Bush, as commander-in-chief, is above the law."
Related Topic: George W. Bush
A Libertarian Visits South America, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Mar 1999
Relates Hornberger's trip to visit the Instituto de Estudos Empresariais in Brazil and the Fundación Atlas para una Sociedad Libre in Argentina
"I explained that the U.S. Constitution called the federal government into existence but that its powers were limited to those enumerated in the document. ... The essence of these two lectures was that people implement government to protect them from the violent acts of others but that the big concern is: How do we protect ourselves from the protectors? The purpose of a constitution is to ensure that the protectors do not become worse than the people they are supposed to protect us from."
Beware Income-Tax Casuistry, Part 3, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Oct 2006
Reviews the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad
"Reading one's libertarian values into the Constitution in defiance of the text and court holdings is futile. Moreover, the Constitution's words are often vague, purposely so; it is a political document. For better or worse the Constitution means what the occupants of the relevant constitutional offices say it means."
Related Topic: Taxation
Do Elections Guarantee Freedom?, by James Bovard, Future of Freedom, Nov 2007
Discusses whether democratic elections achieve the purported objective of "will of the people" controlling the government
"The average American voter had no recourse on November 2, 2004, to make the federal government obey the Constitution or keep the peace. But this was the same situation the voters faced on November 7, 2000, November 5, 1996, and November 3, 1992. Instead, each voter was merely asked to personally consecrate the continued violations of the highest law of the land by whoever won."
Do You Consider Yourself a Libertarian?, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., 25 May 2007
Interview by Kenny Johnsson for "The Liberal Post" blog
"The Constitution would be a major improvement over what we have today. But we need to realize that the Constitution itself represented a major increase in government power over the Articles of Confederation, which would have served us quite well had it not been overthrown. I'm not impressed by the bunch that foisted the Constitution on us. ... We've all but forgotten that most everyone opposed it at the time."
Finding the Flaws, by Joseph Sobran, 25 Mar 1997
Discusses how governments naturally attempt to influence each other, the democratic flaw of voting for benefits at others' expense, in particular children, and how the U.S. Constitution has failed to avoid this outcome
"Wasn't the Constitution supposed to forbid such overweening power of one part of the community over another? ... According to the U.S. Supreme Court, the Constitution has 'evolved' to mean just about the opposite of what everyone used to understand it to mean. In fact, modern jurisprudence has rendered most of the Constitution's text superfluous, nugatory, or hopelessly confusing. Why should it list two dozen powers of Congress, when Congress exercises thousands of unlisted powers?"
Related Topics: Government, Children, Democracy
Lysander Spooner (1808-1887) and Foreign Policy: Spooner's Real Views About Everything, by Joseph R. Stromberg, 8 May 2000
Begins wih biographical summary and then delves into Spooner's views on slavery, the U.S. Constitution and the War Between the States
"Having done his damnedest to reconcile English law and the US Constitution with natural law, Spooner threw over the whole undertaking in No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority (1870). ... Applying with unwavering consistency the principle of 'methodological individualism' to the realm of the law, Spooner held that only real individuals or their properly appointed agents could act, make contracts, and take on binding legal obligations and duties. None of these conditions held with the US Constitution."
Marry and Let Marry, by Sheldon Richman, 3 Mar 2004
Comments on President George W. Bush's proposed amendment to forbid same-sex marriage licenses
"President George W. Bush has ... meddled in education, about which the Constitution has not one word. He aspires to give taxpayers' money to religious groups doing social work, despite the First Amendment's barrier to state entanglement with religion. He invaded Iraq to oust its president, without asking Congress for a formal declaration of war, as the Constitution requires. And his respect for civil liberties protected by the Constitution is less than exemplary."
Related Topic: Marriage
No More Great Presidents, by Robert Higgs, The Free Market, Mar 1997
Discusses the results of a 1996 poll of historians asking them to rank U.S. presidents, focusing on those ranked Great, Near Great and Failure, and offers his own ranking
"The people who ratified the original Constitution never intended the presidency to be a powerful office spawning 'great men.' Article II, Sections 2-4, which enumerate the powers of the president, comprise but four paragraphs, most of which deal with appointments and minor duties. ... The presidency was intended to be a largely ceremonial position whose occupant would confine himself to enforcing federal laws."
Paper Money and the Constitution, by Rick Lynch, Future of Freedom, Jan 2009
Examines the historical period of the Articles of Confederation and how it led to controls on the issuance of paper money in the U.S. Constitution
"Where is the constitutional salvation from the evil of paper money? Relief lies in Article I, Section X. ... the most significant checks on state authority ... were those that would no longer allow the states to 'emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts....'"
Related Topic: Money
Penumbras, Emanations, and Stuff, by Joseph Sobran, The Reactionary Utopian, 6 Feb 2006
"... Congress's power 'to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes' ... is now interpreted to mean that the Federal Government can 'regulate' just about everything we do, from sea to shining sea. This makes the rest of the Constitution pretty much superfluous."
Related Topic: Reserved Powers
Protesting the Tax Protesters, by James Ostrowski, 1 Jan 2007
Presents several arguments against tax protesting, concluding with a suggested approach to fighting against confiscatory taxation
"Constitutions don't limit government power because the government has claimed the exclusive right to say what they mean. More importantly, the Constitution is a legal document. Law is a reflection of pre-legal values. The values that gave rise to the Constitution are in large part dead. The vast majority of the public no longer holds them. You might as well be speaking Chinese to them."
Related Topics: Taxation, Henry David Thoreau
Stop Them!, by Sheldon Richman, 26 Feb 2007
Commentary supporting a New York Times editorial advocating repeal of habeas corpus provisions in the Military Commissions Act and outlawing use of evidence obtained through torture
"Nothing indicts Bush-Cheney as profoundly as their displayed contempt for habeas corpus. I have no doubt that if they thought they could get away with it, they'd suspend it for citizens too. Note well: the Constitution does not distinguish citizens from noncitizens. If the gang-run-amok in the White House can suspend habeas corpus for aliens, it can do so for the rest of us."
Related Topic: Writ of Habeas Corpus
The Authority of a Foreign Talisman: A Study of U.S. Constitutional Practice as Authority in Nineteenth Century Argentina and the Argentine Elite's Leap of Faith, by Jonathan M. Miller, American University Law Review, Jun 1997
Examines the history of Argentine law prior to adoption of the 1853 Constitution, the arguments in Alberdi's Bases and the influence of the U.S. Constitution during the remainder of the 19th century and up to 1930
"The U.S. Constitution was an important model from the beginning of the process that established the Constitution of 1853 ... The tendency toward greater invocation of the U.S. Constitution as authority would suggest that the U.S. Constitution worked as a unifying force. Invocation of the U.S. Constitution and practice began to lessen only toward the turn of the century, by which time Argentina's political institutions were sufficiently well-entrenched so that the U.S. Constitution no longer was necessary as a talisman."
The Constitution and the Rule of Law, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Aug 1992
Related Topic: Rule of Law
The Most Dreaded Enemy of Liberty, by James Madison, Letters and Other Writings of James Madison, 20 Apr 1795
From a longer essay titled "Political Observations", the selected passage reflects on the nature of war and the provisions in the U. S. Constitution about declaring war, conducting war and raising armies
"The Constitution expressly and exclusively vests in the Legislature the power of declaring a state of war ... the power of raising armies ... A delegation of such powers [to the President] would have struck, not only at the fabric of our Constitution, but at the foundation of all well organized and well checked governments. The separation of the power of declaring war from that of conducting it, is wisely contrived to exclude the danger of its being declared for the sake of its being conducted."
Related Topic: War
The People Say No to War, by Sheldon Richman, 13 Sep 2013
Commentary on how the American people stopped, at least momentarily, the Obama administration from attacking the Syrian people
"No paper constitution ever restrained a government. What ultimately restrains governments is a sufficiently large number of people with certain ideas — an ideology — about the limits to state power. If those ideas change, the power of government will expand or contract, depending on the case, even if no single word of the paper constitution changes. Constitutions don't interpret or enforce themselves."
Related Topic: War
The Supreme Court Repeals the Constitution, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Sep 2005
Discusses the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the case of Kelo v. City of New London
"If the Court can liberate itself from any 'literal requirement' when reading the Takings Clause, it can liberate itself from any literal requirement when reading any other part of the Constitution. But that means we can never know how the Court will claim to understand the Framers' limits on government power. Which means: there are no limits on government power."
What Is the Constitution?, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Jun 2002
Discusses constitutional interpretation, in particular the ninth and tenth amendments, in light of comments from Antonin Scalia about a national ID card
"Two major points of view have emerged. One side urges a strict construction. The only rights people have are those expressly stated. ... The other major side urges a looser interpretation ... this side finds a general right to privacy emanating from several amendments, particularly the Fourth and Fifth. ... The list of powers is a secondary consideration ... But that is not how the Constitution was supposed to work."

Cartoons and Comic Strips

We Had to Destroy It ..., by Paul Szep, 11 Dec 2007
Trusting Bush, by Mike Luckovich, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 18 May 2006
Related Topic: George W. Bush

Books

Good To Be King: The Foundations Of Freedom
    by Michael Badnarik, 2004
Restoring the Lost Constitution: The Presumption of Liberty
    by Randy E. Barnett, 2003

Videos


Speaking on Liberty: Sheldon Richman Live!, by Sheldon Richman, 16 Oct 2013
LibertyMinded.org contributor Jason Lee Byas interviews Richman after a talk on Constitution Day at the University of Oklahoma