"Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) (also known as external dispute resolution in some countries, such as Australia) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. ADR basically is an alternative to a formal court hearing or litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party. ADR are ways and methods of resolving disputes outside the judicial process (formal litigation - court). ..."
Methods of resolving disputes between individuals or groups without using the State courts
Alternative dispute resolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Exploring Liberty: The Machinery of Freedom, by David D. Friedman, 6 Mar 2012
Prof. Friedman discusses the premises of The Machinery of Freedom