Territory in the island of Ireland in the northern Atlantic Ocean, ruled since 1937 by the Poblacht na hÉireann
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  • FreedomPedia
  • Ireland (Irish: Éire), also described as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel to the south-east and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, and appoints other government ministers.

    Birthplace of

    Richard Cantillon, on 1680
    Francis Hutcheson, in Drumalig, Saintfield Parish, County Down, on 8 Aug 1694

    Deathplace of

    James P. Hogan, on 12 Jul 2010
    Francis Hutcheson, in Dublin, on 1746

    Measures of Freedom

    Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
    2014: 8.64, Rank: 4, Personal Freedom: 9.31, Economic Freedom: 7.98, Democracy Index: 8.4
    Ireland | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
    2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 96, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
    "The government agreed in 2015 to only 4 of the 38 recommendations made the previous year by Ireland's first Constitutional Convention, a body of citizens and political representatives tasked with debating and proposing changes to the country's constitution. A referendum on two of the recommendations took place in May: marriage equality for same-sex couples, which was endorsed, and lowering the minimum age for presidential candidates from 35 to 21 years, which was rejected."
    Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
    2014: 7.98, Rank: 5

    Articles

    Big-Spending Republicans Can Learn from Ireland's Reforms, by Benjamin Powell, 17 Sep 2003
    Contrasts U.S. government spending in the 1990's and early 2000's with the approach taken in Ireland from the late 1980's
    "Real economic growth is promoted by slashing the size and role of government in the economy. Ireland’s recent growth has shown just how successful this approach can be. After years of high spending, taxing, inflating, and deficits, the Irish government was confronted with a fiscal crisis in 1986. To solve their budget problems they made dramatic cuts in government spending. ... Following the dramatic cuts in government spending Ireland began reducing taxes on both individuals and corporations."
    Government Interventionism in Ireland, Part 1, by Scott McPherson, Future of Freedom, May 2004
    Account of Irish history in the early 20th century, contrasting the views of unionists in Ulster with those of nationalists desiring home rule or outright separation from Britain
    "In 1914, Britain, like the United States and other industrialized countries, was experiencing the tremendous material benefits of a century of laissez-faire economic policies. In Ireland, the most visible advantages of 19th-century capitalism could be seen in Ulster, where industries thrived and living standards soared, relative to the rest of the country."
    Related Topic: United Kingdom
    Government Interventionism in Ireland, Part 2, by Scott McPherson, Future of Freedom, Jun 2004
    Continued examination of the differences between Irish Protestants and Catholics in the early 20th century, suggesting the principles advocated by Mises could have resulted in better outcomes
    "Had Irish nationalists espoused a philosophy of true political freedom — free markets, individual rights and private property, and limited government — rather than one of government interventionism, statism, and political control, there is every reason to believe that the majority of unionists would at least have been less suspicious of their Catholic neighbors and more prepared to see the Home Rule Act as no threat to their British values."
    Related Topic: Ludwig von Mises
    The Colonial Venture of Ireland, Part 1, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, May 2004
    Historical account of Ireland from its earliest inhabitants, through various invaders, conflicts with the English and between Catholics and Protestants, to the mid-nineteenth century
    "The island of Ireland lies at the extreme western edge of Europe, separated from England by the narrow Irish Sea. Today, it is divided into two parts: 6 northern counties called Northern Ireland are a part of the United Kingdom; 26 other counties form a self-governing republic that has been known by different names but is commonly referred to as Ireland. ... On January 1, 1801, an Act of Union joined Ireland and England under a single Parliament in London. The Union would last 120 years."
    Related Topics: Thirteen Colonies, Free Trade
    The Colonial Venture of Ireland, Part 2, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Jun 2004
    Historical account of Ireland from 1840 to the early years of the twentieth century, including the Young Irelanders, the famines, the Irish in North America, Captain Boycott, the demand for home rule, the Gaelic League and the emergence of Sinn Fein
    "By 1841, Ireland had a population of more than eight million. The potato had become the basis of the Irish diet because it was cheap, easy to cultivate, and nutritious. In 1845, 'The Great Hunger' came when a potato blight severely damaged that crop. During the famine years of 1845 to 1851, more than a million people died of starvation or of opportunistic diseases. ... The famine hardened Irish hatred for Britain whose mercantilist policies they blamed for starvation."
    The Colonial Venture of Ireland, Part 3, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Jul 2004
    Historical account of Ireland from 1912 to 1921, including the formation of the Irish Assembly, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty that concluded the Irish War of Independence
    "The newly elected Sinn Féiners formed the Dáil Éireann — the Irish Assembly — and held their first parliament on January 21, 1919 in Dublin. The Dáil, with its own courts and using its own funds, was declared to be Ireland's rightful government, deriving its authority from the Easter Rebellion. The British raided the Dáil and arrested its democratically elected leadership. One leader, Éamon de Valera, was deported to England and prison but he returned to Ireland."
    Related Topics: Terrorism, World War I
    The Colonial Venture of Ireland, Part 4, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Aug 2004
    Historical account of the partitioned Ireland from 1922 to the 1970's, including Éamon de Valera, the creation of the Republic of Ireland, the conflicts with and eventual split up of the IRA, and civil rights marches and riots in the North
    "Many observers contend that if the British were to leave Northern Ireland, blood would flow in Northern streets and the South might erupt in civil war. They argue that centuries of differing development have made the North and South into truly separate entities. Others contend the opposite, arguing that the complete withdrawal of the British from the North is the only hope for Ireland. These two positions — and those in-between — constitute the ongoing debate and dilemma that is Ireland."
    Related Topics: United Kingdom, World War II
    Gertrude B. Kelly: A Forgotten Feminist, by Wendy McElroy, The Freeman, Oct 1998
    Lengthy profile of Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly (1862–1934), Irish immigrant, individualist feminist and contributor to the Liberty periodical
    "As an immigrant from Ireland in 1873, Gertrude Kelly's introduction to individualistic philosophy was probably through the columns of 'Honorius' in Irish World—an organ of the Irish No Rent movement. ... Kelly could not have been indifferent to the absentee British landlords whose claims to most of Ireland's fertile soil came from conquest and legal privilege. The exorbitant rent and interest they charged the Irish for use of land and money were a major cause of that country's poverty."
    NewTo Defeat the Assault on Liberty, Our Appeals Must Be Moral, by Jim Powell, 13 May 2013
    Argues, by providing several historical examples, that "compelling moral appeals for liberty" are needed to confront various current problems such as government spending and debt, higher taxes and disregard of constitutional limits on executive power
    "During the third decade of the 19th century, Daniel O'Connell led the nonviolent movement to abolish British-enforced civil disabilities on Irish Catholics — among other things, they hadn't been permitted to own land, inherit property or vote in Parliamentary elections. O'Connell declared, 'We will plant in our Native Land the Constitutional Tree of Liberty. That noble tree will flourish. Beneath its sacred shade, the People of Ireland — Catholics, Protestants and Dissenters of every Class — will sit in peace. They will see Old Ireland what she ought to be — Great, Glorious and FREE, First Flower of the Earth, first gem of the Sea.'"

    The introductory paragraph uses material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.